//American Journal of Human Biology

American Journal of Human Biology

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Articles of Interest

Genetic‐genealogy approach reveals low rate of extrapair paternity in historical Dutch populations

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2017

Abstract:

Objective

Evolutionary theory has shown that seeking out extrapair paternity (EPP) can be a viable reproductive strategy for both sexes in pair-bonded species, also in humans. As yet, estimates of the contemporary or historical EPP rate in human population are still rare. In the present study, we estimated the historical EPP rate in the Dutch population over the last 400 years and compared the rate with those obtained for other human populations to determine the evolutionary, cultural, and socio-demographic factors that influence human cuckoldry behavior.

Methods

We estimated the historical EPP rate for the Dutch population via the “genealogical pair method”, in which the EPP rate is derived from Y-chromosome mismatches between pairs of individuals that, based on genealogical evidence, share a common paternal ancestor.

Results

Based on the analysis of 68 representative genealogical pairs, separated by a total of 1013 fertilization events, we estimated that the historical EPP rate for the Dutch population over the last 400 years was 0.96% per generation (95% confidence interval 0.46%-1.76%).

Conclusion

The Dutch EPP rate fits perfectly within the range reported for other contemporary and historical populations in Western Europe and was highly congruent with that estimated for neighboring Flanders, despite the socio-economic and religious differences between both populations. The estimated low EPP rate challenges the “dual mating strategy hypothesis” that states that women could obtain fitness benefits by securing investment from one man while cuckolding him to obtain good genes from an affair partner.

Peoples: Dutch | Places: Netherlands | Topics: EPP Rate, NPE, and NPE Rate | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Exploring the mitochondrial DNA variability of the Amazonian Yanomami

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2016

Abstract:

Objectives

The aim of this study was to explore the mitochondrial variability in the Yanomami population to reconstruct its demographic history and explore its genetic composition in relation to its cultural and linguistic features.

Methods

A total of 174 human head hair shafts -collected in 1958- belonging to individuals from a Yanomami group living in Santa Isabel, Brazil, were analyzed. Automated extraction of the hairs was performed, and several methods were applied to optimize the analysis of the degraded DNA. The mtDNA hypervariable segments I–II, along with the 9-bp COII-tRNALys deletion, were investigated. Using published data from the Yanomami and other Amazonian populations, several statistical analyses were carried out to explore the genetic variability within the study population.

Results

Ninety eight percent of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences analyzed belonged to Native American haplogroups, while 2% belonged to African haplogroups. Compared with the Yanomami groups previously studied, the Santa Isabel sample seemed more genetically similar to other Amazonian populations.

Conclusions

Among the Yanomami samples studied to date, the Santa Isabel Yanomami show a higher genetic heterogeneity. This could be due to gene flow with non-Yanomami populations, as well as to the introduction of new mitochondrial haplotypes by gold miners. In both cases, the geographic location of Santa Isabel might have made this Yanomami village less isolated than the others, suggesting that the Rio Negro played a central role in increasing its genetic variability. On the whole, the Yanomami were quite genetically diversified, probably mirroring their great linguistic heterogeneity.

Peoples: Yanomami | Places: Amazon and Brazil | Topics: | DNA Type: mtDNA

Genetic heritage of Croatians in the Southeastern European gene pool—Y chromosome analysis of the Croatian continental and Island population

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2016

Abstract:

Objectives

The research objective of this study is to enlarge and deepen the Y chromosome research on the Croatian population and enable additional insights into the population diversity and historic events that shaped the current genetic landscape of Croatia and Southeastern Europe (SEE).

Materials and Methods

A high-resolution phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of 66 biallelic (SNPs) and 17 microsatellite (STRs) markers of the Y chromosome was performed using 720 Croatian samples. The obtained results were placed in a wider European context by comparison with ∼4450 samples from a number of other European populations.

Results

A high diversity of haplogroups was observed in the overall Croatian sample, and all typical European Y chromosome haplogroups with corresponding clinal patterns were observed. Three distinct genetic signals were identifiable in the Croatian paternal gene pool – I2a1b-M423, R1a1a1b1a*-M558, and E1b1b1a1b1a-V13 haplogroups.

Discussion

The analyses of the dominant and autochthonous I2a1b-M423 lineage (>30%) suggest that SEE had a significant role in the Upper Paleolithic, the R1a1a1b1a*-M558 lineage (19%) represents a signal from present day Slavic populations of Central Europe in the Croatian population, and the phylogeography of the E1b1b1a1b1a-V13 clade (around 9%) implies cultural diffusion of agriculture into Europe via the Balkan Peninsula.

Peoples: Croatians | Places: Croatia and Southeastern Europe | Topics: Upper Paleolithic | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Inferring paternal history of rural African-derived Brazilian populations from Y chromosomes

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2017

Abstract:

Objectives

Quilombo remnants are relics of communities founded by runaway or abandoned African slaves, but often with subsequent extensive and complex admixture patterns with European and Native Americans. We combine a genetic study of Y-chromosome markers with anthropological surveys in order to obtain a portrait of quilombo structure and history in the region that has the largest number of quilombo remnants in the state of São Paulo.

Methods

Samples from 289 individuals from quilombo remnants were genotyped using a set of 17 microsatellites on the Y chromosome (AmpFlSTR-Yfiler). A subset of 82 samples was also genotyped using SNPs array (Axiom Human Origins—Affymetrix). We estimated haplotype and haplogroup frequencies, haplotype diversity and sharing, and pairwise genetic distances through FST and RST indexes.

Results

We identified 95 Y chromosome haplotypes, classified into 15 haplogroups. About 63% are European, 32% are African, and 6% Native American. The most common were: R1b (European, 34.2%), E1b1a (African, 32.3%), J1 (European, 6.9%), and Q (Native American, 6.2%). Genetic differentiation among communities was low (FST = 0.0171; RST = 0.0161), and haplotype sharing was extensive. Genetic, genealogical and oral surveys allowed us to detect five main founder haplotypes, which explained a total of 27.7% of the Y chromosome lineages.

Conclusions

Our results showed a high European patrilineal genetic contribution among the founders of quilombos, high amounts of gene flow, and a recent common origin of these populations. Common haplotypes and genealogical data indicate the origin of quilombos from a few male individuals. Our study reinforces the importance of a dual approach, involving the analysis of both anthropological and genetic data.

Peoples: African Brazilians | Places: Brazil | Topics: | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y chromosome diversity in a linguistic isolate (Mirandese, NE Portugal)

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2016

Abstract:

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize the male lineages of people who speak Mirandese, an interesting case of a linguistic relict that can still be found in the municipality of Miranda do Douro, NE Portugal. This region lies within the area of the Leonese dialects, which are remnants of the Romance dialects spoken in the Kingdom of Leon currently grouped in the Astur–Leonese linguistic continuum. We intended to disclose affinities with surrounding populations, namely from Spain where the Astur–Leonese is also spoken.

Methods

Eighty-eight unrelated males (58 from Miranda and 30 from Bragança, the broad Portuguese region where Miranda is located) were genotyped with the combined use of 17 Y chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) and a high resolution Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNPs) strategy. Moreover, 236 males from Miranda and neighboring regions, previously classified as R-M269, were also genotyped.

Results

R-P312 was the most frequent haplogroup in the Mirandese, followed by J-12f2.1 and T-M70. The male lineages J-12f2.1 and T-M70 were also well represented, and both were shared with descendants of Sephardic Jews. No signs of diversity reduction were detected.

Conclusions

Mirandese speakers display a Y chromosome gene pool that shows a subtle differentiation from neighboring populations, mainly attributable to the assimilation of lineages ascribed to be of Jewish ancestry. Although not revealing signs of geographic/linguistic isolation, no clear affinities with other Astur–Leonese populations were detected. The results suggest that in Miranda language sharing is not accompanied by significant gene flow between populations from both sides of the political border.

Peoples: Mirandese speakers | Places: Kingdom of Leon, Miranda do Douro, and Portugal | Topics: linguistic relicts | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Genetic structure of the Kuwaiti population revealed by paternal lineages

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2016

Abstract:

Objective

We analyzed the Y-chromosome haplogroup diversity in the Kuwaiti population to gain a more complete overview of its genetic landscape.

Method

A sample of 117 males from the Kuwaiti population was studied through the analysis of 22 Y-SNPs. The results were then interpreted in conjunction with those of other populations from the Middle East, South Asia, North and East Africa, and East Europe.

Results

The analyzed markers allowed the discrimination of 19 different haplogroups with a diversity of 0.7713. J-M304 was the most frequent haplogroup in the Kuwaiti population (55.5%) followed by E-M96 (18%). They revealed a genetic homogeneity between the Kuwaiti population and those of the Middle East (FST = 6.1%, P-value < 0.0001), although a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances was found (r = 0.41, P-value = 0.009). Moreover, the nonsignificant pairwise FST genetic distances between the Kuwait population on the one hand and the Arabs of Iran and those of Sudan on the other, corroborate the hypothesis of bidirectional gene flow between Arabia and both Iran and Sudan.

Conclusion

Overall, we have revealed that the Kuwaiti population has experienced significant gene flow from neighboring populations like Saudi Arabia, Iran, and East Africa. Therefore, we have confirmed that the population of Kuwait is genetically coextensive with those of the Middle East.

Peoples: Kuwaitis | Places: East Africa, Iran, and Saudi Arabia | Topics: Gene flow | DNA Type: Y-DNA

MtDNA and Y-chromosomal diversity in the Chachapoya, a population from the northeast Peruvian Andes-Amazon divide

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2016

Abstract:

Objectives
The ancient Chachapoya were an aggregate of several ethnic groups that shared a common language, religion, and material culture. They inhabited a territory at the juncture of the Andes and the Amazon basin. Their position between those ecozones most likely influenced their genetic composition. We attempted to better understand their population history by assessing the contemporary genetic diversity in the Chachapoya and three of their immediate neighbors (Huancas, Jivaro, and Cajamarca). We inferred signatures of demographic history and genetic affinities, and contrasted the findings with data from other populations on local and continental scales.

Methods
We studied mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; hypervariable segment [HVSI and HVSII]) and Y chromosome (23 short tandem repeats (STRs)) marker data in 382 modern individuals. We used Sanger sequencing for mtDNA and a commercially available kit for Y–chromosomal STR typing.

Results
The Chachapoya had affinities with various populations of Andean and Amazonian origin. When examining the Native American component, the Chachapoya displayed high levels of genetic diversity. Together with other parameters, for example, large Tajima's D and Fu's Fs, the data indicated no drastic reduction of the population size in the past.

Conclusion
The high level of diversity in the Chachapoya, the lack of evidence of drift in the past, and genetic affinities with a broad range of populations in the Americas reflects an intricate population history in the region. The new genetic data from the Chachapoya indeed seems to point to a genetic complexity that is not yet resolved but beginning to be elucidated.

Peoples: Cajamarca, Chachapoya, Huancas, Jivaro, and Native Americans | Places: Amazon basin and Andes | Topics: - | DNA Type: mtDNA and Y-STR

Sampling strategies in a linguistic isolate: Results from mtDNA analysis

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2012

Abstract:

Sampling strategies are crucial issues in population genetics and anthropological studies. The sampling choice is related to the research question and the type of markers used. In this research, we compared two different sampling strategies in the Sardinian linguistic isolate of Carloforte (Italy). Methods: A first sampling (N = 49) was carried out through grandparents criterion: individuals selected for the study were born and resident in Carloforte, and unrelated for at least three generations. A second sampling (N = 50) was based on founders surnames (FS): selected participants were proved to be descendants of the village founders, and to have no ancestors in common, at least up to the grandparental generation. Results: The group selected through FS showed a greater gene diversity, which was confirmed by both network and haplogroup analysis. Among the shared haplogroups, we find clear differences in their frequencies. Sampling through grandparents criterion showed essentially the same haplogroups found in Sardinia, and with similar frequencies. Interesting results came from genetic tree. The FS sampling clustered with Northern African populations and it is located very far from Italian and Sardinian populations, whereas the grandparents criterion sampling clustered with Italian populations and it is located close to the other Sardinian populations. Conclusions: Results showed that different sampling strategies can lead to contrasting results. As sampling through grandparents criterion is influenced by recent gene flow, we hypothesize that the difference observed with the two sampling strategies is due to the merging of Carloforte with Sardinian populations. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2012. copyright 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: mtDNA

Distribution of Y-chromosome q lineages in native americans

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2011

Abstract:

This investigation was performed to identify and evaluate the distribution of all 15 Y-chromosome lineages belonging to the Q clade in a sample of natives from South America. Methods: One hundred and forty-eight individuals from 20 Native American populations, as well as 24 Asian samples including Eskimos, were tested with 18 biallelic loci that can identify all currently known lineages of the Y-Chromosome Q clade. Sequencing was performed in part of the sample (?180,000 nucleotides, which detected, for instance, several downstream markers related to the Q1a3a lineage). Results: No new mutation was found and Q1a3a was consistently found in high frequencies in all populations, followed at a much lower frequency by Q1a3*, while Q1a3a derived-lineages are probably population/tribe/region-specific. Conclusion: The number of basal Y chromosome lineages in North America is apparently higher than in South America due probably to a bottleneck during the South American colonization and/or more recent Circum-Arctic gene flow. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2011. copyright 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Mitochondrial DNA variability in the Titicaca basin: Matches and mismatches with linguistics and ethnohistory

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2011

Abstract:

Objectives
The Titicaca basin was the cradle of some of the major complex societies of pre-Columbian South America and is today home to three surviving native languages: Quechua, Aymara, and Uro. This study seeks to contribute to reconstructing the population prehistory of the region, by providing a first genetic profile of its inhabitants, set also into the wider context of South American genetic background.

Methods
We report the first mitochondrial DNA first hypervariable segment sequences of native populations of the environs of Lake Titicaca: speakers of Aymara and Quechua, and the “Uros” of the Lake's floating islands. We sampled Aymara speakers from a locality where the Uro language was formerly documented, to check for possible language shift patterns. These data are compared with those for other Amerindian populations, collated from already published sources.

Results
Our results uncover the genetic distinctiveness of our formerly Uro but now Aymara-speaking sample, in contrast with a relative homogeneity for all the other Central Andean samples.

Conclusions
The genetic affinities that characterize Central Andean populations are highly consistent with the succession of expansive polities in the region, culminating with the Incas. In the environs of Lake Titicaca, however, one subset of the present day Aymara-speaking population exhibits a peculiar position: perhaps a genetic correlate to their original Uro linguistic lineage (now extinct in the area), tallying with ethnohistorical claims for the distinctiveness of the Uro population. Our results emphasize the need for genetic descriptions to consider the widespread phenomenon of language shift.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: mtDNA

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