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Journal Article Archive 2016-10-14T01:03:42+00:00

Journal Article Archive

Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe

Journal: Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2007

Abstract:

In order to reconstruct the history of Y-chromosome haplogroup (hg) N dispersals in north Eurasia, we have analyzed the diversity of microsatellite (STR) loci within two major hg N clades, N2 and N3, in a total sample of 1,438 males from 17 ethnic groups, mainly of Siberian and Eastern European origin. Based on STR variance analysis we observed that hg N3a is more diverse in Eastern Europe than in south Siberia. However, analysis of median networks showed that there are two STR subclusters of hg N3a, N3a1 and N3a2, that are characterized by different genetic histories. Age calculation of STR variation within subcluster N3a1 indicated that its first expansion occurred in south Siberia [approximately 10,000 years (ky)] and then this subcluster spread into Eastern Europe where its age is around 8 ky ago. Meanwhile, younger subcluster N3a2 originated in south Siberia (probably in the Baikal region) approximately 4 ky ago. Median network and variance analyses of STR haplotypes suggest that south Siberian N3a2 haplotypes spread further into Volga-Ural region undergoing serial bottlenecks. In addition, median network analysis of STR data demonstrates that haplogroup N2-A is represented by two subclusters, showing recent expansion times. The data obtained allow us to suggest Siberian origin of haplogroups N3 and N2 that are currently widespread in some populations of Eastern Europe.

Peoples: - | Places: Europe | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome haplogrouping for Asians using Y-SNP target sequencing

Journal: Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2017

Abstract:

Y-chromosomal haplogroups are sets of ancestrally related paternal lineages. We prepared a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based target sequencing panel of 85 Y-SNPs to determine Y-haplogroup of Asian populations. The Y-SNP panel was applied to several Asian ethnic groups: Korean, Chinese (Han and Dai), Japanese, Vietnamese, and Pakistani. Target capture was done using the SureSelect XT Custom capture kit (Agilent) and NGS was performed using the HiSeq 2500 (Illumina). This study could provide a fine Y-haplogroup tree for Asian groups. The Y-SNP panel was determined to be highly exact and reproducible and can be useful for the rapid determination of Asian Y-haplogroups. In particular, since there is a significant difference in the Y-haplogroup distribution among the Northeast Asian populations, applying the Y-SNP panel will help predict the ethnics among the Northeast Asian countries.

Peoples: Asians, Chinese, Dai, Han, Japanese, Pakistani, and Vietnamese | Places: Asia | Topics: Y-chromosome | DNA Type: Y-DNA and Y-SNP

Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population

Journal: Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2010

Abstract:

The present work tries to investigate the population structure and variation of the Amerindian indigenous populations living in Argentina. A total of 134 individuals from three ethnic groups (Kolla, Mapuche and Diaguitas) living in four different regions were collected and analysed for 26 Y-SNPs and 11 Y-STRs. Intra-population variability was analysed, looking for population substructure and neighbour populations were considered for genetic comparative analysis, in order to estimate the contribution of the Amerindian and the European pool, to the current population. We observe a high frequency of R1b1 and Q1a3a* Y-chromosome haplogroups, in the ethnic groups Mapuche, Diaguita and Kolla, characteristic of European and Native American populations, respectively. When we compare our native Argentinean population with other from the South America we also observe that frequency values for Amerindian lineages are relatively lower in our population. These results show a clear Amerindian genetic component but we observe a predominant European influence too, suggesting that typically European male lineages have given rise to the displacement of genuinely Amerindian male lineages in our South American population.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-Chromosome Lineages Trace Diffusion of People and Languages in Southwestern Asia

Journal: American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2001

Abstract:

The origins and dispersal of farming and pastoral nomadism in southwestern Asia are complex, and there is controversy about whether they were associated with cultural transmission or demic diffusion. In addition, the spread of these technological innovations has been associated with the dispersal of Dravidian and Indo-Iranian languages in southwestern Asia. Here we present genetic evidence for the occurrence of two major population movements, supporting a model of demic diffusion of early farmers from southwestern Iran-and of pastoral nomads from western and central Asia-into India, associated with Dravidian and Indo-European-language dispersals, respectively.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome O3 Haplogroup Diversity in Sino-Tibetan Populations Reveals Two Migration Routes into the Eastern Himalayas

Journal: Annals of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Abstract:

The eastern Himalayas are located near the southern entrance through which early modern humans expanded into East Asia. The genetic structure in this region is therefore of great importance in the study of East Asian origins. However, few genetic studies have been performed on the Sino-Tibetan populations (Luoba and Deng) in this region. Here, we analyzed the Y-chromosome diversity of the two populations. The Luoba possessed haplogroups D, N, O, J, Q, and R, indicating gene flow from Tibetans, as well as the western and northern Eurasians. The Deng exhibited haplogroups O, D, N, and C, similar to most Sino-Tibetan populations in the east. Short tandem repeat (STR) diversity within the dominant haplogroup O3 in Sino-Tibetan populations showed that the Luoba are genetically close to Tibetans and the Deng are close to the Qiang. The Qiang had the greatest diversity of Sino-Tibetan populations, supporting the view of this population being the oldest in the family. The lowest diversity occurred in the eastern Himalayas, suggesting that this area was an endpoint for the expansion of Sino-Tibetan people. Thus, we have shown that populations with haplogroup O3 moved into the eastern Himalayas through at least two routes.
copyright 2011 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics copyright 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome polymorphisms define the origin of the Mang, an isolated population in China

Journal: Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2007

Abstract:

The Mang is an isolated population living at the border of Vietnam and China characterized by small stature and a primordial lifestyle. However, the origin of this population remains unclear. To clarify the origin of the Mang and its genetic relationship with other populations, 20 Y-chromosome markers were analyzed, including 12 biallelic markers and eight short tandem repeats (STR) in this population, and the data compared with published data from other populations in eastern Asia. Only three Y-chromosome haplogroups, O2a*-M95, O3d-M7 and O3e-M134, were identified in Mang. Among them, the southern haplogroups O2a*-M95 were most prevalent, with a frequency of 97%. Principal component analysis (PCA) plots showed that Mang clustered with southern populations but not with northern populations. In conclusion, the present study provided evidence for the first time that the Mang population is of southern origin. The Mang is an isolated population living at the border of Vietnam and China characterized by small stature and a primordial lifestyle. However, the origin of this population remains unclear. To clarify the origin of the Mang and its genetic relationship with other populations, 20 Y-chromosome markers were analyzed, including 12 biallelic markers and eight short tandem repeats (STR) in this population, and the data compared with published data from other populations in eastern Asia. Only three Y-chromosome haplogroups, O2a*-M95, O3d-M7 and O3e-M134, were identified in Mang. Among them, the southern haplogroups O2a*-M95 were most prevalent, with a frequency of 97%. Principal component analysis (PCA) plots showed that Mang clustered with southern populations but not with northern populations. In conclusion, the present study provided evidence for the first time that the Mang population is of southern origin.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome short tandem repeat intermediate variant alleles DYS3922, DYS4492, and DYS3852 delineate new phylogenetic substructure in human Y-chromosome haplogroup tree

Journal: Croatian medical journal | Year: 2009

Abstract:

AIM:
To determine the human Y-chromosome haplogroup backgrounds of intermediate-sized variant alleles displayed by short tandem repeat (STR) loci DYS392, DYS449, and DYS385, and to evaluate the potential of each intermediate variant to elucidate new phylogenetic substructure within the human Y-chromosome haplogroup tree.
METHODS:
Molecular characterization of lineages was achieved using a combination of Y-chromosome haplogroup defining binary polymorphisms and up to 37 short tandem repeat loci. DNA sequencing and median-joining network analyses were used to evaluate Y-chromosome lineages displaying intermediate variant alleles.
RESULTS:
We show that DYS392.2 occurs on a single haplogroup background, specifically I1*-M253, and likely represents a new phylogenetic subdivision in this European haplogroup. Intermediate variants DYS449.2 and DYS385.2 both occur on multiple haplogroup backgrounds, and when evaluated within specific haplogroup contexts, delineate new phylogenetic substructure, with DYS449.2 being informative within haplogroup A-P97 and DYS385.2 in haplogroups D-M145, E1b1a-M2, and R1b*-M343. Sequence analysis of variant alleles observed within the various haplogroup backgrounds showed that the nature of the intermediate variant differed, confirming the mutations arose independently.
CONCLUSIONS:
Y-chromosome short tandem repeat intermediate variant alleles, while relatively rare, typically occur on multiple haplogroup backgrounds. This distribution indicates that such mutations arise at a rate generally intermediate to those of binary markers and STR loci. As a result, intermediate-sized Y-STR variants can reveal phylogenetic substructure within the Y-chromosome phylogeny not currently detected by either binary or Y-STR markers alone, but only when such variants are evaluated within a haplogroup context.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome STRs in an Antioquian (Colombia) population sample

Journal: Forensic Science International | Year: 2006

Abstract:

Haplotype data were obtained from a sample of 777 unrelated male individuals from Antioquia Department (Colombia), for eight Y-chromosome STRs (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393). A total of 442 different haplotypes were identified of which 334 were represented only once in the database and the most frequent haplotype was found in 32 individuals. A high haplotype diversity was found (99.45%). Genetic distances were calculated using previously published haplotype data and the lowest values were found for the comparisons with samples of lberian origin.

Peoples: - | Places: Antioquia Department and Colombia | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-STR

Y-Chromosome Variability in Four Native American Populations from Panama

Journal: Human Biology | Year: 2008

Abstract:

The allele and haplotype frequencies for 13 Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) [nine STR loci of the minimal Y-chromosome haplotype (DYS19 -DYS385a -DYS385b -DYS389I -DYS389II -DYS390 -DYS391 – DYS392 -DYS393) plus four additional loci (DYS388, DYS426, DYS439, DXYS156)] were determined in 99 males from 4 Panamanian native American populations, including the Chibcha-speaking Ngöbé and Kuna and the Chocóspeaking Emberá and Wounan. Fifty haplotypes were identified, of which 48 (96%) were specific to a single population and 29 (63%) were found in only a single individual. Gene diversity per locus per population ranged from 0 to 0.814, with the highest gene diversity present at the DYS389II locus in the Emberá. The haplotypic discrimination capacity was low, ranging from 42.3% in the Kuna to 63.1% in theWounan. The four tribes showed a high degree of differentiation both at the Y chromosome and in the mitochondrial genome, highlighting the importance of genetic structure even in geographically proximate and linguistically related populations.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome variation and Irish origins

Journal: Nature | Year: 2000

Abstract:

Ireland's position on the western edge of Europe suggests that the genetics of its population should have been relatively undisturbed by the demographic movements that have shaped variation on the mainland. We have typed 221 Y chromosomes from Irish males for seven (slowly evolving) biallelic and six (quickly evolving) simple tandem-repeat markers. When these samples are partitioned by surname, we find significant differences in genetic frequency between those of Irish Gaelic and of foreign origin, and also between those of eastern and western Irish origin. Connaught, the westernmost Irish province, lies at the geographical and genetic extreme of a Europe-wide cline.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

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