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Journal Article Archive

Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan

Journal: European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2006

Abstract:

Three Pakistani populations residing in northern Pakistan, the Burusho, Kalash and Pathan claim descent from Greek soldiers associated with Alexander's invasion of southwest Asia. Earlier studies have excluded a substantial Greek genetic input into these populations, but left open the question of a smaller contribution. We have now typed 90 binary polymorphisms and 16 multiallelic, short-tandem-repeat (STR) loci mapping to the male-specific portion of the human Y chromosome in 952 males, including 77 Greeks in order to re-investigate this question. In pairwise comparisons between the Greeks and the three Pakistani populations using genetic distance measures sensitive to recent events, the lowest distances were observed between the Greeks and the Pathans. Clade E3b1 lineages, which were frequent in the Greeks but not in Pakistan, were nevertheless observed in two Pathan individuals, one of whom shared a 16 Y-STR haplotype with the Greeks. The worldwide distribution of a shortened (9 Y-STR) version of this haplotype, determined from database information, was concentrated in Macedonia and Greece, suggesting an origin there. Although based on only a few unrelated descendants, this provides strong evidence for a European origin for a small proportion of the Pathan Y chromosomes.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe

Journal: European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2008

Abstract:

The debate concerning the mechanisms underlying the prehistoric spread of farming to Southeast Europe is framed around the opposing roles of population movement and cultural diffusion. To investigate the possible involvement of local people during the transition of agriculture in the Balkans, we analysed patterns of Y-chromosome diversity in 1206 subjects from 17 population samples, mainly from Southeast Europe. Evidence from three Y-chromosome lineages, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241, make it possible to distinguish between Holocene Mesolithic forager and subsequent Neolithic range expansions from the eastern Sahara and the Near East, respectively. In particular, whereas the Balkan microsatellite variation associated to J-M241 correlates with the Neolithic period, those related to E-V13 and I-M423 Balkan Y chromosomes are consistent with a late Mesolithic time frame. In addition, the low frequency and variance associated to I-M423 and E-V13 in Anatolia and the Middle East, support an European Mesolithic origin of these two clades. Thus, these Balkan Mesolithic foragers with their own autochthonous genetic signatures, were destined to become the earliest to adopt farming, when it was subsequently introduced by a cadre of migrating farmers from the Near East. These initial local converted farmers became the principal agents spreading this economy using maritime leapfrog colonization strategies in the Adriatic and transmitting the Neolithic cultural package to other adjacent Mesolithic populations. The ensuing range expansions of E-V13 and I-M423 parallel in space and time the diffusion of Neolithic Impressed Ware, thereby supporting a case of cultural diffusion using genetic evidence.

Peoples: - | Places: Europe | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India

Journal: Human Genetics | Year: 2007

Abstract:

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh and 86 from the rest of India. We typed 131 Y-chromosomal binary markers and 16 microsatellites. We find striking evidence for male substructure: in particular, Brahmins and Kshatriyas (but not other castes) from Jaunpur each show low diversity and the predominance of a single distinct cluster of haplotypes. These findings confirm the genetic isolation and drift within the Jaunpur upper castes, which are likely to result from founder effects and social factors. In the other castes, there may be either larger effective population sizes, or less strict isolation, or both.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat haplotypes in southern Croatian male population defined by 17 loci

Journal: Croatian medical journal | Year: 2008

Abstract:

AIM:
To define the Y-chromosome genetic structure in a sample of men from southern Croatia.
METHODS:
Blood samples were collected from 166 unrelated healthy men from southern Croatia at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Biochemical Laboratory of University Hospital Split between 2004 and 2007. Genomic DNA was extracted using the standard procedures. Seventeen Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) polymorphic loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, GATAH4, DYS437, DYS438, and DYS448) were analyzed using AmpFlSTR Yfiler Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification Kit.
RESULTS:
We observed 152 different haplotypes. Total haplotype diversity was 0.997289 and 141 haplotypes (84.49%) were unique. The most common haplotype was shared by only 4 men in the study sample. The locus diversity ranged between 0.21292 for DYS392 and 0.75546 for DYS439 locus.
CONCLUSION:
The Y-chromosome structure in men from southern Croatia is very diverse. Combination of Y chromosome 17 STR loci may be used as a powerful tool for individual identification and parentage analysis in the southern Croatian male population.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Northeast Italian population sample using 17plex loci PCR assay

Journal: International journal of legal medicine | Year: 2006

Abstract:

One hundred fifty-five unrelated, autochthonous healthy males from Northeast Italy were typed for the 17 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) (Y-STR) loci DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438, DYS448 using the AmpFLSTR Yfiler polymerase chain reaction amplification kit. A total of 153 different haplotypes were observed, and among these, 151 were unique, while 2 were found two times. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997. Furthermore, 50 father–son pairs, previously confirmed by autosomal STR analysis, were typed using the same set of 17 Y-STR loci, and, among 850 allele transfers, three mutation events were identified, giving an average mutation rate of 3.53×10?3 per locus per generation (95% confidence interval 0.73–1.03).

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Albanian population sample

Journal: Forensic Science International | Year: 2002

Abstract:

Eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and DYS385, were typed in a population sample ( n =101) of first-generation Albanian immigrants living in Italy.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Arab population from Somalia

Journal: Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2009

Abstract:

We analyzed Y-chromosomal STRs in an Arabic population sample of 33 males from Somalia and found 29 different haplotypes. Most of these haplotypes were never observed in any population study so far.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Berber and Arabic-speaking populations from Morocco

Journal: Forensic Science International | Year: 2004

Abstract:

Twelve Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS388, DYS426 and DYS439 were typed in Berber-speaking ( n =49) and Arabic-speaking ( n =60) population samples from Morocco.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in three ethnic groups and one cosmopolitan population from Tunisia

Journal: Forensic Science International | Year: 2005

Abstract:

The 11 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) included in the Promega Corporation PowerPlex ® Y System (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) were typed in three ethnic groups ( ” Andalusians”, Berber and Arab) and one cosmopolitan population (Tunis) from Tunisia, summing up 247 individuals, and 139 different haplotypes. Focusing the analysis on the seven Y-STRs of the YHRD Minimal Haplotype Core (DYS385 excepted), ” Andalusians” showed no differences from the Cosmopolitan and the Arab samples previously published (our Arab sample presented an extremely low haplotype diversity), but were different from the Berbers. The Berbers from Tunisia were not different from those from Morocco.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STRs in two populations from Israel and the Palestinian Authority Area: Christian and Muslim Arabs

Journal: Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

Abstract:

We determined the allele frequencies for the 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448), in a total of 163 individuals unrelated at the great-grandfather paternal level: 44 Christian Arabs (CA) from Israel and 119 Muslim Arabs (MA) from Israel and the Palestinian Authority Area (PAA). They represent a subset of samples previously typed for 13 Y-chromosomal binary and 6 STR loci [1,2].

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

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