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Journal Article Archive 2016-10-14T01:03:42+00:00

Journal Article Archive

Y chromosomes of Jewish priests

Journal: Nature | Year: 1997

Abstract:

None

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y Chromosomes Traveling South: The Cohen Modal Haplotype and the Origins of the Lemba—the ” Black Jews of Southern Africa”

Journal: American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2000

Abstract:

The Lemba are a traditionally endogamous group speaking a variety of Bantu languages who live in a number of locations in southern Africa. They claim descent from Jews who came to Africa from ” Sena.” ” Sena” is variously identified by them as Sanaa in Yemen, Judea, Egypt, or Ethiopia. A previous study using Y-chromosome markers suggested both a Bantu and a Semitic contribution to the Lemba gene pool, a suggestion that is not inconsistent with Lemba oral tradition. To provide a more detailed picture of the Lemba paternal genetic heritage, we analyzed 399 Y chromosomes for six microsatellites and six biallelic markers in six populations (Lemba, Bantu, Yemeni-Hadramaut, Yemeni-Sena, Sephardic Jews, and Ashkenazic Jews). The high resolution afforded by the markers shows that Lemba Y chromosomes are clearly divided into Semitic and Bantu clades. Interestingly, one of the Lemba clans carries, at a very high frequency, a particular Y-chromosome type termed the ” Cohen modal haplotype,” which is known to be characteristic of the paternally inherited Jewish priesthood and is thought, more generally, to be a potential signature haplotype of Judaic origin. The Bantu Y-chromosome samples are predominantly (>80%) YAP + and include a modal haplotype at high frequency. Assuming a rapid expansion of the eastern Bantu, we used variation in microsatellite alleles in YAP + sY81-G Bantu Y chromosomes to calculate a rough date, 3,000–5,000 years before the present, for the start of their expansion.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y haplogroups and aggressive behavior in a Pakistani ethnic group

Journal: Aggressive Behavior | Year: 2009

Abstract:

Studies show that personality dimensions such as aggression are influenced by genetic factors and that allelic variants located on the Y chromosome influence such behavior. We investigated polymorphisms on the male-specific region of the human Y chromosome in 156 unrelated males from the same ethnic background, who were administered the Punjabi translation of the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire that measures four aspects that constitute aggressive behavior, i.e. physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility. A value of .85 for Cronbach's coefficient ? indicates considerable internal consistency and suggests that the psychometric properties of the aggression questionnaire can be adapted for the Pakistani population. A mean score±SD of 69.70±19.95 was obtained for the questionnaire. Each individual was genotyped following a phylogenetic hierarchical approach to define evolutionary Y haplogroups. Five Y haplogroups that are commonly found in Eurasia and Pakistan comprised 87% (n=136) of the population sample, with one haplogroup, R1a1, constituting 55% of the sampled population. A comparison of the total and four subscale mean scores across the five common Y haplogroups that were present at a frequency ?3% in this ethnic group revealed no overall significant differences. However, effect-size comparisons allowed us to detect an association of the haplogroups R2 (Cohen's d statistic=.448–.732) and R1a1 (d=.107–.448) with lower self-reported aggression mean scores in this population. Aggr. Behav. 35:68–74, 2009. copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type:

Y- STRs and forensic parameters in African populations

Journal: Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2008

Abstract:

Short Tandem Repeat polymorphisms have been widely studied in the world, since specific databases are required to produce correct estimates of forensic statistical parameters. In this regard, Y-chromosome STRs have been studied mainly in Europe but are relatively scarce for sub-Saharan populations, despite these populations are represented in most of the Western countries. The aim of this work is to detect groups of populations with the lowest genetic variability within the African context. This allows to establish the relative homogeneity of Y-STRs databases for forensic casework and eventually to provide a wider insight into the African genetic history.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal analysis of Greek Cypriots reveals a primarily common pre-Ottoman paternal ancestry with Turkish Cypriots

Journal: PloS one | Year: 2017

Abstract:

Genetics can provide invaluable information on the ancestry of the current inhabitants of Cyprus. A Y-chromosome analysis was performed to (i) determine paternal ancestry among the Greek Cypriot (GCy) community in the context of the Central and Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East; and (ii) identify genetic similarities and differences between Greek Cypriots (GCy) and Turkish Cypriots (TCy). Our haplotype-based analysis has revealed that GCy and TCy patrilineages derive primarily from a single gene pool and show very close genetic affinity (low genetic differentiation) to Calabrian Italian and Lebanese patrilineages. In terms of more recent (past millennium) ancestry, as indicated by Y-haplotype sharing, GCy and TCy share much more haplotypes between them than with any surrounding population (7–8% of total haplotypes shared), while TCy also share around 3% of haplotypes with mainland Turks, and to a lesser extent with North Africans. In terms of Y-haplogroup frequencies, again GCy and TCy show very similar distributions, with the predominant haplogroups in both being J2a-M410, E-M78, and G2-P287. Overall, GCy also have a similar Y-haplogroup distribution to non-Turkic Anatolian and Southwest Caucasian populations, as well as Cretan Greeks. TCy show a slight shift towards Turkish populations, due to the presence of Eastern Eurasian (some of which of possible Ottoman origin) Y-haplogroups. Overall, the Y-chromosome analysis performed, using both Y-STR haplotype and binary Y-haplogroup data puts Cypriot in the middle of a genetic continuum stretching from the Levant to Southeast Europe and reveals that despite some differences in haplotype sharing and haplogroup structure, Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots share primarily a common pre-Ottoman paternal ancestry.

Peoples: Greek Cypriots, non-Turkic Anatolians, and Southwest Caucasians | Places: Cyprus | Topics: E-M78, G2-P287, and J2a-M410 | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms

Journal: Annals of Human Genetics | Year: 2007

Abstract:

We investigated Y chromosomal binary and STR polymorphisms in 263 unrelated male individuals from the Japanese population and further examined the relationships between the two separate types of data. Using 47 biallelic markers we distinguished 20 haplogroups, four of which (D2b1/-022457, O3/-002611*, O3/-LINE1 del, and O3/-021354*) were newly defined in this study. Most haplogroups in the Japanese population are found in one of the three major clades, C, D, or O. Among these, two major lineages, D2b and O2b, account for 66% of Japanese Y chromosomes. Haplotype diversity of binary markers was calculated at 86.3%. The addition of 16 Y-STR markers increased the number of haplotypes to 225, yielding a haplotype diversity of 99.40%. A comparison of binary haplogroups and Y-STR type revealed a close association between certain binary haplogroups and Y-STR allelic or conformational differences, such as those at the DXYS156Y, DYS390m, DYS392, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS388 loci. Based on our data on the relationships between binary and STR polymorphisms, we estimated the binary haplogroups of individuals from STR haplotypes and frequencies of binary haplogroups in other Japanese, Korean and Taiwanese Han populations. The present data will enable researchers to connect data from binary haplogrouping in anthropological studies and Y-STR typing in forensic studies in East Asian populations, especially those in and around Japan.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language

Journal: American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2000

Abstract:

Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations. Patterns of geographic differentiation are highly nonrandom, and, when they are assessed using spatial autocorrelation analysis, they show significant clines for five of six haplogroups analyzed. Clines for two haplogroups, representing 45% of the chromosomes, are continentwide and consistent with the demic diffusion hypothesis. Clines for three other haplogroups each have different foci and are more regionally restricted and are likely to reflect distinct population movements, including one from north of the Black Sea. Principal-components analysis suggests that populations are related primarily on the basis of geography, rather than on the basis of linguistic affinity. This is confirmed in Mantel tests, which show a strong and highly significant partial correlation between genetics and geography but a low, nonsignificant partial correlation between genetics and language. Genetic-barrier analysis also indicates the primacy of geography in the shaping of patterns of variation. These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift.

Peoples: - | Places: Europe | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal diversity in Haiti and Jamaica: Contrasting levels of sex-biased gene flow

Journal: American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2012

Abstract:

Although previous studies have characterized the genetic structure of populations from Haiti and Jamaica using classical and autosomal STR polymorphisms, the patrilineal influences that are present in these countries have yet to be explored. To address this lacuna, the current study aims to investigate, for the first time, the potential impact of different ancestral sources, unique colonial histories, and distinct family structures on the paternal profile of both groups. According to previous reports examining populations from the Americas, island-specific demographic histories can greatly impact population structure, including various patterns of sex-biased gene flow. Also, given the contrasting autosomal profiles provided in our earlier study (Simms et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 142 (2010) 49–66), we hypothesize that the degree and directionality of gene flow from Europeans, Africans, Amerindians, and East Asians are dissimilar in the two countries. To test this premise, 177 high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers and 17 Y-STR loci were typed in Haiti (n = 123) and Jamaica (n = 159) and subsequently utilized for phylogenetic comparisons to available reference collections encompassing Africa, Europe, Asia (East and South), and the New World. Our results reveal that both studied populations exhibit a predominantly South-Saharan paternal component, with haplogroups A1b-V152, A3-M32, B2-M182, E1a-M33, E1b1a-M2, E2b-M98, and R1b2-V88 comprising 77.2% and 66.7% of the Haitian and Jamaican paternal gene pools, respectively. Yet, European derived chromosomes (i.e., haplogroups G2a*-P15, I-M258, R1b1b-M269, and T-M184) were detected at commensurate levels in Haiti (20.3%) and Jamaica (18.9%), whereas Y-haplogroups indicative of Chinese [O-M175 (3.8%)] and Indian [H-M69 (0.6%) and L-M20 (0.6%)] ancestry were restricted to Jamaica. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2012. copyright 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events

Journal: The American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2008

Abstract:

Lebanon is an eastern Mediterranean country inhabited by approximately four million people with a wide variety of ethnicities and religions, including Muslim, Christian, and Druze. In the present study, 926 Lebanese men were typed with Y-chromosomal SNP and STR markers, and unusually, male genetic variation within Lebanon was found to be more strongly structured by religious affiliation than by geography. We therefore tested the hypothesis that migrations within historical times could have contributed to this situation. Y-haplogroup J * (xJ2) was more frequent in the putative Muslim source region (the Arabian Peninsula) than in Lebanon, and it was also more frequent in Lebanese Muslims than in Lebanese non-Muslims. Conversely, haplogroup R1b was more frequent in the putative Christian source region (western Europe) than in Lebanon and was also more frequent in Lebanese Christians than in Lebanese non-Christians. The most common R1b STR-haplotype in Lebanese Christians was otherwise highly specific for western Europe and was unlikely to have reached its current frequency in Lebanese Christians without admixture. We therefore suggest that the Islamic expansion from the Arabian Peninsula beginning in the seventh century CE introduced lineages typical of this area into those who subsequently became Lebanese Muslims, whereas the Crusader activity in the 11 th –13 th centuries CE introduced western European lineages into Lebanese Christians.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal DNA analyzed for four prehistoric cemeteries from Cis-Baikal, Siberia

Journal: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports | Year: 2016

Abstract:

The Lake Baikal region of Siberia was home to two temporally distinct populations from Early Neolithic, EN (7500–7000 cal BP) to Late Neolithic-Early Bronze Age, LN-EBA (5570–3725 cal BP). The EN group was separated from the LN-EBA group by a ~ 1500-year gap (hiatus), and during this hiatus no human remains have been recovered from the Lake Baikal area. Examination of the paternal lineage through Y-chromosomal polymorphisms is a novel approach to BAP and will facilitate the assessment of the paternal continuities and/or discontinuities within and between the EN and the LN-EBA groups, and complement the previously examined maternal data. Several new ancient DNA extraction and PCR amplification techniques were optimized to address the technical challenges during sample analysis. Each sample was extracted twice in duplicate on different occasions to authenticate the results. Thirteen Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers were examined via the SNaPshot multiplex PCR reaction to determine Y-chromosomal haplogroups of males. Results have been obtained from 16 males from the EN cemeteries Lokomotiv and Shamanka II representing haplogroups K, R1a1 and C3, and 20 males from the LN-EBA Ust'-Ida and Kurma XI cemeteries representing haplogroups Q, K and unidentified SNP (L914). For those males belonging to haplogroup Q, further experiments were obtained to examine sub-haplogroups of Q, and the results showed that those males belong to sub-haplogroup Q1a3. The paternal Y-chromosome results suggest a discontinuity between the EN and LN-EBA populations. The significance of this research lies on the utility of DNA analysis in making inferences about the pre-historic social structure.

Peoples: | Places: Kurma XI cemeteries, Lake Baikal area, and Siberia | Topics: Ancient DNA, Haplogroups, mtDNA, Siberian population, Sub-haplogroups of Q, and Y-chromosome | DNA Type: Ancient DNA

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