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Y-chromosome diversity is inversely associated with language affiliation in paired Austronesian- and Papuan-speaking communities from Solomon Islands

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2006

Abstract:

The Solomon Islands lie in the center of Island Melanesia, bordered to the north by the Bismarck Archipelago and to the south by Vanuatu. The nation's half-million inhabitants speak around 70 languages from two unrelated language groups: Austronesian, a language family widespread in the Pacific and closely related to languages spoken in Island Southeast Asia, and “East Papuan”, generally defined as non-Austronesian and distantly related to the extremely diverse Papuan languages of New Guinea. Despite the archipelago's presumed role as a staging post for the settlement of Remote Oceania, genetic research on Solomon Island populations is sparse. We collected paired samples from two regions that have populations speaking Austronesian and Papuan languages, respectively. Here we present Y-chromosome data from these samples, the first from Solomon Islands. We detected five Y-chromosome lineages: M-M106, O-M175, K-M9*, K-M230, and the extremely rare clade, K1-M177. Y-chromosome lineages from Solomon Islands fall within the range of other Island Melanesian populations but display markedly lower haplogroup diversity. From a broad Indo-Pacific perspective, Y-chromosome lineages show partial association with the distribution of language groups: O-M175 is associated spatially with Austronesian-speaking areas, whereas M-M106 broadly correlates with the distribution of Papuan languages. However, no relationship between Y-chromosome lineages and language affiliation was observed on a small scale within Solomon Islands. This pattern may result from a sampling strategy that targeted small communities, where individual Y-chromosome lineages can be fixed or swept to extinction by genetic drift or favored paternal exogamy.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-Chromosome evidence for a northward migration of modern humans into Eastern Asia during the last Ice Age

Journal: The American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 1999

Abstract:

The timing and nature of the arrival and the subsequent expansion of modern humans into eastern Asia remains controversial. Using Y-chromosome biallelic markers, we investigated the ancient human-migration patterns in eastern Asia. Our data indicate that southern populations in eastern Asia are much more polymorphic than northern populations, which have only a subset of the southern haplotypes. This pattern indicates that the first settlement of modern humans in eastern Asia occurred in mainland Southeast Asia during the last Ice Age, coinciding with the absence of human fossils in eastern Asia, 50,000–100,000 years ago. After the initial peopling, a great northward migration extended into northern China and Siberia.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas

Journal: American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2003

Abstract:

To scrutinize the male ancestry of extant Native American populations, we examined eight biallelic and six microsatellite polymorphisms from the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome, in 438 individuals from 24 Native American populations (1 Na Dené and 23 South Amerinds) and in 404 Mongolians. One of the biallelic markers typed is a recently identified mutation (M242) characterizing a novel founder Native American haplogroup. The distribution, relatedness, and diversity of Y lineages in Native Americans indicate a differentiated male ancestry for populations from North and South America, strongly supporting a diverse demographic history for populations from these areas. These data are consistent with the occurrence of two major male migrations from southern/central Siberia to the Americas (with the second migration being restricted to North America) and a shared ancestry in central Asia for some of the initial migrants to Europe and the Americas. The microsatellite diversity and distribution of a Y lineage specific to South America (Q-M19) indicates that certain Amerind populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region, suggesting an early onset for tribalization of Native Americans. Age estimates based on Y-chromosome microsatellite diversity place the initial settlement of the American continent at ?14,000 years ago, in relative agreement with the age of well-established archaeological evidence.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations

Journal: BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2007

Abstract:

The Austro-Asiatic linguistic family, which is considered to be the oldest of all the families in India, has a substantial presence in Southeast Asia. However, the possibility of any genetic link among the linguistic sub-families of the Indian Austro-Asiatics on the one hand and between the Indian and the Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics on the other has not been explored till now. Therefore, to trace the origin and historic expansion of Austro-Asiatic groups of India, we analysed Y-chromosome SNP and STR data of the 1222 individuals from 25 Indian populations, covering all the three branches of Austro-Asiatic tribes, viz. Mundari, Khasi-Khmuic and Mon-Khmer, along with the previously published data on 214 relevant populations from Asia and Oceania.RESULTS:Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia. However, maternal link based on mtDNA is not evident. The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442 – 132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor. Subsequently, in the process of expansion, the Mon-Khmer populations from Southeast Asia seem to have migrated and colonized Andaman and Nicobar Islands at a much later point of time.CONCLUSION:Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome genetic variation in Rio De Janeiro population

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2006

Abstract:

The present-day Brazilian gene pool is known to be the outcome of an admixture process of populations from different origins, mainly Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans. It is also known that in Brazil, a wide variation in the admixture process occurred in different regions of the country or even in different subpopulations from the same region. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the male lineages present in the Rio de Janeiro population, the second most populated of the 26 Brazilian states. A random sample of 127 unrelated males from Rio de Janeiro was typed for 28 Y-chromosome-specific biallelic markers. In total, 17 different haplogroups were defined within our sample, most of them of European ancestry (88.1%). Those of sub-Saharan African origin (E3a) amounted to 7.9%, while only 2 males carried Amerindian lineages (characterized by the presence of an M3 mutation: haplogroup Q3). Using both Y-STR haplotype and Y-SNP haplogroup information, genetic distances were calculated between the subgroup of Rio de Janeiro males carrying European haplogroups and the Portuguese population. Low, nonsignificant, values were obtained. Thus, in contrast with what is observed in their female counterparts, the vast majority of the present Rio de Janeiro male gene pool is of European extraction, while the original Amerindian lineages are residual and much less frequent than the sub-Saharan component resulting from the slave trade. These observations can be interpreted as the signature of the strong gender asymmetry of the admixture processes in colonial systems. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:829–837, 2006. copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe

Journal: Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2007

Abstract:

In order to reconstruct the history of Y-chromosome haplogroup (hg) N dispersals in north Eurasia, we have analyzed the diversity of microsatellite (STR) loci within two major hg N clades, N2 and N3, in a total sample of 1,438 males from 17 ethnic groups, mainly of Siberian and Eastern European origin. Based on STR variance analysis we observed that hg N3a is more diverse in Eastern Europe than in south Siberia. However, analysis of median networks showed that there are two STR subclusters of hg N3a, N3a1 and N3a2, that are characterized by different genetic histories. Age calculation of STR variation within subcluster N3a1 indicated that its first expansion occurred in south Siberia [approximately 10,000 years (ky)] and then this subcluster spread into Eastern Europe where its age is around 8 ky ago. Meanwhile, younger subcluster N3a2 originated in south Siberia (probably in the Baikal region) approximately 4 ky ago. Median network and variance analyses of STR haplotypes suggest that south Siberian N3a2 haplotypes spread further into Volga-Ural region undergoing serial bottlenecks. In addition, median network analysis of STR data demonstrates that haplogroup N2-A is represented by two subclusters, showing recent expansion times. The data obtained allow us to suggest Siberian origin of haplogroups N3 and N2 that are currently widespread in some populations of Eastern Europe.

Peoples: - | Places: Europe | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population

Journal: Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2010

Abstract:

The present work tries to investigate the population structure and variation of the Amerindian indigenous populations living in Argentina. A total of 134 individuals from three ethnic groups (Kolla, Mapuche and Diaguitas) living in four different regions were collected and analysed for 26 Y-SNPs and 11 Y-STRs. Intra-population variability was analysed, looking for population substructure and neighbour populations were considered for genetic comparative analysis, in order to estimate the contribution of the Amerindian and the European pool, to the current population. We observe a high frequency of R1b1 and Q1a3a* Y-chromosome haplogroups, in the ethnic groups Mapuche, Diaguita and Kolla, characteristic of European and Native American populations, respectively. When we compare our native Argentinean population with other from the South America we also observe that frequency values for Amerindian lineages are relatively lower in our population. These results show a clear Amerindian genetic component but we observe a predominant European influence too, suggesting that typically European male lineages have given rise to the displacement of genuinely Amerindian male lineages in our South American population.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-Chromosome Lineages Trace Diffusion of People and Languages in Southwestern Asia

Journal: American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2001

Abstract:

The origins and dispersal of farming and pastoral nomadism in southwestern Asia are complex, and there is controversy about whether they were associated with cultural transmission or demic diffusion. In addition, the spread of these technological innovations has been associated with the dispersal of Dravidian and Indo-Iranian languages in southwestern Asia. Here we present genetic evidence for the occurrence of two major population movements, supporting a model of demic diffusion of early farmers from southwestern Iran-and of pastoral nomads from western and central Asia-into India, associated with Dravidian and Indo-European-language dispersals, respectively.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome O3 Haplogroup Diversity in Sino-Tibetan Populations Reveals Two Migration Routes into the Eastern Himalayas

Journal: Annals of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Abstract:

The eastern Himalayas are located near the southern entrance through which early modern humans expanded into East Asia. The genetic structure in this region is therefore of great importance in the study of East Asian origins. However, few genetic studies have been performed on the Sino-Tibetan populations (Luoba and Deng) in this region. Here, we analyzed the Y-chromosome diversity of the two populations. The Luoba possessed haplogroups D, N, O, J, Q, and R, indicating gene flow from Tibetans, as well as the western and northern Eurasians. The Deng exhibited haplogroups O, D, N, and C, similar to most Sino-Tibetan populations in the east. Short tandem repeat (STR) diversity within the dominant haplogroup O3 in Sino-Tibetan populations showed that the Luoba are genetically close to Tibetans and the Deng are close to the Qiang. The Qiang had the greatest diversity of Sino-Tibetan populations, supporting the view of this population being the oldest in the family. The lowest diversity occurred in the eastern Himalayas, suggesting that this area was an endpoint for the expansion of Sino-Tibetan people. Thus, we have shown that populations with haplogroup O3 moved into the eastern Himalayas through at least two routes.
copyright 2011 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics copyright 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome polymorphisms define the origin of the Mang, an isolated population in China

Journal: Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2007

Abstract:

The Mang is an isolated population living at the border of Vietnam and China characterized by small stature and a primordial lifestyle. However, the origin of this population remains unclear. To clarify the origin of the Mang and its genetic relationship with other populations, 20 Y-chromosome markers were analyzed, including 12 biallelic markers and eight short tandem repeats (STR) in this population, and the data compared with published data from other populations in eastern Asia. Only three Y-chromosome haplogroups, O2a*-M95, O3d-M7 and O3e-M134, were identified in Mang. Among them, the southern haplogroups O2a*-M95 were most prevalent, with a frequency of 97%. Principal component analysis (PCA) plots showed that Mang clustered with southern populations but not with northern populations. In conclusion, the present study provided evidence for the first time that the Mang population is of southern origin. The Mang is an isolated population living at the border of Vietnam and China characterized by small stature and a primordial lifestyle. However, the origin of this population remains unclear. To clarify the origin of the Mang and its genetic relationship with other populations, 20 Y-chromosome markers were analyzed, including 12 biallelic markers and eight short tandem repeats (STR) in this population, and the data compared with published data from other populations in eastern Asia. Only three Y-chromosome haplogroups, O2a*-M95, O3d-M7 and O3e-M134, were identified in Mang. Among them, the southern haplogroups O2a*-M95 were most prevalent, with a frequency of 97%. Principal component analysis (PCA) plots showed that Mang clustered with southern populations but not with northern populations. In conclusion, the present study provided evidence for the first time that the Mang population is of southern origin.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

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