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Journal Article Archive 2016-10-14T01:03:42+00:00

Journal Article Archive

Y chromosomal deletion pattern in Koreans inhabiting Jeju Island

Journal: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht uber die biologisch-anthropologische Literatur | Year: 2017

Abstract:

Mutations occur in Y chromosome genes similar to autosomal genes. However, unlike autosomal genes, Y chromosome genes do not undergo recombination, which produce distinctive characteristics and distribution patterns in different geographic regions. Therefore, detailed analysis of mutations of Y chromosome genes might provide information for personal identification or analysis of phylogenetic history. In Y-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis tests on 668 habitants of Jeju Island, the largest island in the Korean peninsula located apart from the mainland, a deletion at DYS448 was found in 10 samples. The length of deletion was estimated by confirming specific Sequence Tagged Site (STS) markers ranging from G66018 to sY1201. Patterns found were similar to those of the Kalmyks, a tribe that has had strong social and genetic influences in Jeju Island in the past. Historically from 1273 on, Jeju Island was governed by Mongolian for about one hundred years. The results of this study suggest such historical aspects affected the genetic composition of people living in Jeju Island. Furthermore, previous reports showed that Y chromosomal deletions and region specific Y chromosomal mutations depended on regional differences. This study may be useful for a better understanding of the genetic structure of Jeju habitants as well as Korean population for the purpose of forensic practice and population genetics.

Peoples: Koreans and Mongolians | Places: Jeju Island and Korean peninsula | Topics: Y-DNA | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates

Journal: European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2003

Abstract:

Y chromosome variation in 457 Croatian samples was studied using 16 SNPs/indel and eight STR loci. High frequency of haplogroup I in Croatian populations and the phylogeographic pattern in its background STR diversity over Europe make Adriatic coast one likely source of the recolonization of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum. The higher frequency of I in the southern island populations is contrasted with higher frequency of group R1a chromosomes in the northern island of Krk and in the mainland. R1a frequency, while low in Greeks and Albanians, is highest in Polish, Ukrainian and Russian populations and could be a sign of the Slavic impact in the Balkan region. Haplogroups J, G and E that can be related to the spread of farming characterize the minor part (12.5%) of the Croatian paternal lineages. In one of the southern island (Hvar) populations, we found a relatively high frequency (14%) of lineages belonging to P*(xM173) cluster, which is unusual for European populations. Interestingly, the same population also harbored mitochondrial haplogroup F that is virtually absent in European populations – indicating a connection with Central Asian populations, possibly the Avars.

Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type:

Y Chromosomal STR Locus DYS385 in Azoospermic and Fertile Men from the Aegean Region of Turkey: Is there any Forensic Relevance?

Journal: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2008

Abstract:

The DYS385 locus, consisting of two linked short tandem repeat (STR) subloci, is the polymorphic marker on the Y chromosome. The distribution of DYS385 genotypes was studied in 51 fertile and 49 azoospermic male individuals from the Aegean Region of Turkey. Genotype 14-17 was the most frequently observed genotype, and the gene diversity value of the Aegean population (n = 100) was 0.946 in this study. Results of the analyses show that there is a statistically significant difference between azoospermic and fertile males in terms of the DYS385 polymorphism. In addition, the results demonstrate that the DYS385 locus is very useful for human identification in forensic cases and paternity tests in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y chromosome azoospermia factor region microdeletions and recurrent pregnancy loss

Journal: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2008

Abstract:

This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) as compared with fertile couples.
Study Design Forty-three men from couples with recurrent pregnancy loss, and 43 men from couples with a live birth and no history of miscarriages were recruited from Zekai Tahir Burak Woman Health, Education and Research Hospital. The DNA was tested for the presence of 4 sequence tagged sites (STSs) spanning 4 AZF regions: DYS220 (AZFb), DYS235, DYS236, and DYS237 (AZFd).
Results Seven (7) of the 43 men (16%) from couples with recurrent pregnancy loss had microdeletions in 1 or more of the 4 segments studied, whereas none of the fertile men had any microdeletions (P < .05). Their microdeletions were all found specifically at locus DYS 220 (AZFb).
Conclusion The prevalence of the Y chromosome microdeletion in AZF region was much higher in men from couples with recurrent pregnancy loss than men in fertile couples. This study showed that Y chromosome microdeletion in AZF region may be a possible etiologic factor of recurrent pregnancy loss.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: AZF region and Y chromosome microdeletion | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y chromosome diversity in a linguistic isolate (Mirandese, NE Portugal)

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2016

Abstract:

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize the male lineages of people who speak Mirandese, an interesting case of a linguistic relict that can still be found in the municipality of Miranda do Douro, NE Portugal. This region lies within the area of the Leonese dialects, which are remnants of the Romance dialects spoken in the Kingdom of Leon currently grouped in the Astur–Leonese linguistic continuum. We intended to disclose affinities with surrounding populations, namely from Spain where the Astur–Leonese is also spoken.

Methods

Eighty-eight unrelated males (58 from Miranda and 30 from Bragança, the broad Portuguese region where Miranda is located) were genotyped with the combined use of 17 Y chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) and a high resolution Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNPs) strategy. Moreover, 236 males from Miranda and neighboring regions, previously classified as R-M269, were also genotyped.

Results

R-P312 was the most frequent haplogroup in the Mirandese, followed by J-12f2.1 and T-M70. The male lineages J-12f2.1 and T-M70 were also well represented, and both were shared with descendants of Sephardic Jews. No signs of diversity reduction were detected.

Conclusions

Mirandese speakers display a Y chromosome gene pool that shows a subtle differentiation from neighboring populations, mainly attributable to the assimilation of lineages ascribed to be of Jewish ancestry. Although not revealing signs of geographic/linguistic isolation, no clear affinities with other Astur–Leonese populations were detected. The results suggest that in Miranda language sharing is not accompanied by significant gene flow between populations from both sides of the political border.

Peoples: Mirandese speakers | Places: Kingdom of Leon, Miranda do Douro, and Portugal | Topics: linguistic relicts | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution

Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences | Year: 2009

Abstract:

The relative importance of the roles of adaptation and chance in determining genetic diversity and evolution has received attention in the last 50 years, but our understanding is still incomplete. All statements about the relative effects of evolutionary factors, especially drift, need confirmation by strong demographic observations, some of which are easier to obtain in a species like ours. Earlier quantitative studies on a variety of data have shown that the amount of genetic differentiation in living human populations indicates that the role of positive (or directional) selection is modest. We observe geographic peculiarities with some Y chromosome mutants, most probably due to a drift-related phenomenon called the surfing effect. We also compare the overall genetic diversity in Y chromosome DNA data with that of other chromosomes and their expectations under drift and natural selection, as well as the rate of fall of diversity within populations known as the serial founder effect during the recent ” Out of Africa” expansion of modern humans to the whole world. All these observations are difficult to explain without accepting a major relative role for drift in the course of human expansions. The increasing role of human creativity and the fast diffusion of inventions seem to have favored cultural solutions for many of the problems encountered in the expansion. We suggest that cultural evolution has been subrogating biologic evolution in providing natural selection advantages and reducing our dependence on genetic mutations, especially in the last phase of transition from food collection to food production.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration

Journal: Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2002

Abstract:

British history contains several periods of major cultural change. It remains controversial as to how much these periods coincided with substantial immigration from continental Europe, even for those that occurred most recently. In this study, we examine genetic data for evidence of male immigration at particular times into Central England and North Wales. To do this, we used 12 biallelic polymorphisms and six microsatellite markers to define high-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes in a sample of 313 males from seven towns located along an east-west transect from East Anglia to North Wales. The Central English towns were genetically very similar, whereas the two North Welsh towns differed significantly both from each other and from the Central English towns. When we compared our data with an additional 177 samples collected in Friesland and Norway, we found that the Central English and Frisian samples were statistically indistinguishable. Using novel population genetic models that incorporate both mass migration and continuous gene flow, we conclude that these striking patterns are best explained by a substantial migration of Anglo-Saxon Y chromosomes into Central England (contributing 50%–100% to the gene pool at that time) but not into North Wales.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y chromosome haplotype analysis in purebred dogs

Journal: Mammalian Genome | Year: 2005

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the genetic structure of purebred dogs, six Y chromosome microsatellite markers were used to analyze DNA samples from 824 unrelated dogs from 50 recognized breeds. A relatively small number of haplotypes (67) were identified in this large sample set due to extensive sharing of haplotypes between breeds and low haplotype diversity within breeds. Fifteen breeds were characterized by a single Y chromosome haplotype. Breed-specific haplotypes were identified for 26 of the 50 breeds, and haplotype sharing between some breeds indicated a common history. A molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) demonstrated significant genetic variation across breeds (63.7%) and with geographic origin of the breeds (11.5%). A network analysis of the haplotypes revealed further relationships between the breeds as well as deep rooting of many of the breed-specific haplotypes, particularly among breeds of African origin.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y chromosome haplotype diversity in Mongolic-speaking populations and gene conversion at the duplicated STR DYS385a, b in haplogroup C3-M407

Journal: Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2016

Abstract:

Y chromosome microsatellite (Y-STR) diversity has been studied in different Mongolic-speaking populations from South Siberia, Mongolia, North-East China and East Europe. The results obtained indicate that the Mongolic-speaking populations clustered into two groups, with one group including populations from eastern part of South Siberia and Central Asia (the Buryats, Barghuts and Khamnigans) and the other group including populations from western part of Central Asia and East Europe (the Mongols and Kalmyks). High frequency of haplogroup C3-M407 (>50%) is present in the Buryats, Barghuts and Khamnigans, whereas in the Mongols and Kalmyks its frequency is much lower. In addition, two allelic combinations in DYS385a,b loci of C3-M407 haplotypes have been observed: the combination 11,18 (as well as 11,17 and 11,19) is frequent in different Mongolic-speaking populations, but the 11,11 branch is present mainly in the Kalmyks and Mongols. Results of locus-specific sequencing suggest that the action of gene conversion is a more likely explanation for origin of homoallelic 11,11 combination. Moreover, analysis of median networks of Y-STR haplotypes demonstrates that at least two gene conversion events can be revealed—one of them has probably occurred among the Mongols, and the other event occurred in the Barghuts. These two events give an average gene conversion rate range of 0.24–7.1 × 10–3 per generation.

Peoples: Barghuts, Buryats, Kalmyks, Khamnigans, and Mongols | Places: Central Asia, East Europe, Mongolia, North-East China, and South Siberia | Topics: C3-M407 and Gene conversion events | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y chromosome haplotypes in Central-South Italy: Implication for reference database

Journal: Forensic Science International | Year: 2007

Abstract:

One hundred and fifty individuals have been sampled across Central-South Italy and genotyped for Y chromosome STRs by PowerPlex® Y system. Comparison with previous Italian databases revealed that majority of Y chromosome variation still need to be sampled. Identification of locus duplications, distribution of genetic variation and firstly identified alleles point to the necessity of more focused sampling strategies for reference databases.

Peoples: - | Places: Central-South Italy | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-STR

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