/Journal Article Archive
Journal Article Archive 2016-10-14T01:03:42+00:00

Journal Article Archive

Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe

Journal: European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2008

Abstract:

The debate concerning the mechanisms underlying the prehistoric spread of farming to Southeast Europe is framed around the opposing roles of population movement and cultural diffusion. To investigate the possible involvement of local people during the transition of agriculture in the Balkans, we analysed patterns of Y-chromosome diversity in 1206 subjects from 17 population samples, mainly from Southeast Europe. Evidence from three Y-chromosome lineages, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241, make it possible to distinguish between Holocene Mesolithic forager and subsequent Neolithic range expansions from the eastern Sahara and the Near East, respectively. In particular, whereas the Balkan microsatellite variation associated to J-M241 correlates with the Neolithic period, those related to E-V13 and I-M423 Balkan Y chromosomes are consistent with a late Mesolithic time frame. In addition, the low frequency and variance associated to I-M423 and E-V13 in Anatolia and the Middle East, support an European Mesolithic origin of these two clades. Thus, these Balkan Mesolithic foragers with their own autochthonous genetic signatures, were destined to become the earliest to adopt farming, when it was subsequently introduced by a cadre of migrating farmers from the Near East. These initial local converted farmers became the principal agents spreading this economy using maritime leapfrog colonization strategies in the Adriatic and transmitting the Neolithic cultural package to other adjacent Mesolithic populations. The ensuing range expansions of E-V13 and I-M423 parallel in space and time the diffusion of Neolithic Impressed Ware, thereby supporting a case of cultural diffusion using genetic evidence.

Peoples: - | Places: Europe | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India

Journal: Human Genetics | Year: 2007

Abstract:

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh and 86 from the rest of India. We typed 131 Y-chromosomal binary markers and 16 microsatellites. We find striking evidence for male substructure: in particular, Brahmins and Kshatriyas (but not other castes) from Jaunpur each show low diversity and the predominance of a single distinct cluster of haplotypes. These findings confirm the genetic isolation and drift within the Jaunpur upper castes, which are likely to result from founder effects and social factors. In the other castes, there may be either larger effective population sizes, or less strict isolation, or both.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat haplotypes in southern Croatian male population defined by 17 loci

Journal: Croatian medical journal | Year: 2008

Abstract:

AIM:
To define the Y-chromosome genetic structure in a sample of men from southern Croatia.
METHODS:
Blood samples were collected from 166 unrelated healthy men from southern Croatia at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Biochemical Laboratory of University Hospital Split between 2004 and 2007. Genomic DNA was extracted using the standard procedures. Seventeen Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) polymorphic loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, GATAH4, DYS437, DYS438, and DYS448) were analyzed using AmpFlSTR Yfiler Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification Kit.
RESULTS:
We observed 152 different haplotypes. Total haplotype diversity was 0.997289 and 141 haplotypes (84.49%) were unique. The most common haplotype was shared by only 4 men in the study sample. The locus diversity ranged between 0.21292 for DYS392 and 0.75546 for DYS439 locus.
CONCLUSION:
The Y-chromosome structure in men from southern Croatia is very diverse. Combination of Y chromosome 17 STR loci may be used as a powerful tool for individual identification and parentage analysis in the southern Croatian male population.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Northeast Italian population sample using 17plex loci PCR assay

Journal: International journal of legal medicine | Year: 2006

Abstract:

One hundred fifty-five unrelated, autochthonous healthy males from Northeast Italy were typed for the 17 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) (Y-STR) loci DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438, DYS448 using the AmpFLSTR Yfiler polymerase chain reaction amplification kit. A total of 153 different haplotypes were observed, and among these, 151 were unique, while 2 were found two times. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997. Furthermore, 50 father–son pairs, previously confirmed by autosomal STR analysis, were typed using the same set of 17 Y-STR loci, and, among 850 allele transfers, three mutation events were identified, giving an average mutation rate of 3.53×10?3 per locus per generation (95% confidence interval 0.73–1.03).

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Albanian population sample

Journal: Forensic Science International | Year: 2002

Abstract:

Eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and DYS385, were typed in a population sample ( n =101) of first-generation Albanian immigrants living in Italy.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Arab population from Somalia

Journal: Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2009

Abstract:

We analyzed Y-chromosomal STRs in an Arabic population sample of 33 males from Somalia and found 29 different haplotypes. Most of these haplotypes were never observed in any population study so far.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Berber and Arabic-speaking populations from Morocco

Journal: Forensic Science International | Year: 2004

Abstract:

Twelve Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS388, DYS426 and DYS439 were typed in Berber-speaking ( n =49) and Arabic-speaking ( n =60) population samples from Morocco.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in three ethnic groups and one cosmopolitan population from Tunisia

Journal: Forensic Science International | Year: 2005

Abstract:

The 11 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) included in the Promega Corporation PowerPlex ® Y System (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) were typed in three ethnic groups ( ” Andalusians”, Berber and Arab) and one cosmopolitan population (Tunis) from Tunisia, summing up 247 individuals, and 139 different haplotypes. Focusing the analysis on the seven Y-STRs of the YHRD Minimal Haplotype Core (DYS385 excepted), ” Andalusians” showed no differences from the Cosmopolitan and the Arab samples previously published (our Arab sample presented an extremely low haplotype diversity), but were different from the Berbers. The Berbers from Tunisia were not different from those from Morocco.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal STRs in two populations from Israel and the Palestinian Authority Area: Christian and Muslim Arabs

Journal: Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

Abstract:

We determined the allele frequencies for the 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448), in a total of 163 individuals unrelated at the great-grandfather paternal level: 44 Christian Arabs (CA) from Israel and 119 Muslim Arabs (MA) from Israel and the Palestinian Authority Area (PAA). They represent a subset of samples previously typed for 13 Y-chromosomal binary and 6 STR loci [1,2].

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal variation in sub-Saharan Africa: insights into the history of Niger-Congo groups

Journal: Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2011

Abstract:

Technological and cultural innovations as well as climate changes are thought to have influenced the diffusion of major language phyla in sub-Saharan Africa. The most widespread and the richest in diversity is the Niger-Congo phylum, thought to have originated in West Africa ?10,000 years ago (ya). The expansion of Bantu languages (a family within the Niger-Congo phylum) ?5,000 ya represents a major event in the past demography of the continent. Many previous studies on Y chromosomal variation in Africa associated the Bantu expansion with haplogroup E1b1a (and sometimes its sublineage E1b1a7). However, the distribution of these two lineages extends far beyond the area occupied nowadays by Bantu-speaking people, raising questions on the actual genetic structure behind this expansion. To address these issues, we directly genotyped 31 biallelic markers and 12 microsatellites on the Y chromosome in 1,195 individuals of African ancestry focusing on areas that were previously poorly characterized (Botswana, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Zambia). With the inclusion of published data, we analyzed 2,736 individuals from 26 groups representing all linguistic phyla and covering a large portion of sub-Saharan Africa. Within the Niger-Congo phylum, we ascertain for the first time differences in haplogroup composition between Bantu and non-Bantu groups via two markers (U174 and U175) on the background of haplogroup E1b1a (and E1b1a7), which were directly genotyped in our samples and for which genotypes were inferred from published data using linear discriminant analysis on short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes. No reduction in STR diversity levels was found across the Bantu groups, suggesting the absence of serial founder effects. In addition, the homogeneity of haplogroup composition and pattern of haplotype sharing between Western and Eastern Bantu groups suggests that their expansion throughout sub-Saharan Africa reflects a rapid spread followed by backward and forward migrations. Overall, we found that linguistic affiliations played a notable role in shaping sub-Saharan African Y chromosomal diversity, although the impact of geography is clearly discernible.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

« First ‹ Previous 1 12 102 110 111 112 113 114 116 Next › Last »