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Journal Article Archive

Y-Chromosome Analysis in Individuals Bearing the Basarab Name of the First Dynasty of Wallachian Kings

Journal: PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Abstract:

Vlad III The Impaler, also known as Dracula, descended from the dynasty of Basarab, the first rulers of independent Wallachia, in present Romania. Whether this dynasty is of Cuman (an admixed Turkic people that reached Wallachia from the East in the 11th century) or of local Romanian (Vlach) origin is debated among historians. Earlier studies have demonstrated the value of investigating the Y chromosome of men bearing a historical name, in order to identify their genetic origin. We sampled 29 Romanian men carrying the surname Basarab, in addition to four Romanian populations (from counties Dolj, N = 38; Mehedinti, N = 11; Cluj, N = 50; and Brasov, N = 50), and compared the data with the surrounding populations. We typed 131 SNPs and 19 STRs in the non-recombinant part of the Y-chromosome in all the individuals. We computed a PCA to situate the Basarab individuals in the context of Romania and its neighboring populations. Different Y-chromosome haplogroups were found within the individuals bearing the Basarab name. All haplogroups are common in Romania and other Central and Eastern European populations. In a PCA, the Basarab group clusters within other Romanian populations. We found several clusters of Basarab individuals having a common ancestor within the period of the last 600 years. The diversity of haplogroups found shows that not all individuals carrying the surname Basarab can be direct biological descendants of the Basarab dynasty. The absence of Eastern Asian lineages in the Basarab men can be interpreted as a lack of evidence for a Cuman origin of the Basarab dynasty, although it cannot be positively ruled out. It can be therefore concluded that the Basarab dynasty was successful in spreading its name beyond the spread of its genes.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome analysis reveals genetic divergence and new founding native lineages in Athapaskan-and Eskimoan-speaking populations

Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences | Year: 2012

Abstract:

For decades, the peopling of the Americas has been explored through the analysis of uniparentally inherited genetic systems in Native American populations and the comparison of these genetic data with current linguistic groupings. In northern North America, two language families predominate: Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene. Although the genetic evidence from nuclear and mtDNA loci suggest that speakers of these language families share a distinct biological origin, this model has not been examined using data from paternally inherited Y chromosomes. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the migration histories of Eskimoan- and Athapaskan-speaking populations, we analyzed Y-chromosomal data from Inuvialuit, Gwich’in, and Tłįchǫ populations living in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Over 100 biallelic markers and 19 chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) were genotyped to produce a high-resolution dataset of Y chromosomes from these groups. Among these markers is an SNP discovered in the Inuvialuit that differentiates them from other Aboriginal and Native American populations. The data suggest that Canadian Eskimoan- and Athapaskan-speaking populations are genetically distinct from one another and that the formation of these groups was the result of two population expansions that occurred after the initial movement of people into the Americas. In addition, the population history of Athapaskan speakers is complex, with the Tłįchǫ being distinct from other Athapaskan groups. The high-resolution biallelic data also make clear that Y-chromosomal diversity among the first Native Americans was greater than previously recognized.

Peoples: Gwich’in, Inuvialuit, Native Americans, and Tłįchǫ | Places: Canada and Northwest Territory | Topics: Athapaskan-speaking population | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome and autosomal STR diversity in four proximate settlements in Central Anatolia

Journal: Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2010

Abstract:

Due to the longstanding human presence in the region and the influence of social traditions, the genetic make-up of populations currently inhabiting Turkey (Anatolia) is quite complex. To characterize the patterns of genetic diversity in rural Central Anatolian villages, we analyzed samples collected at four local settlements for variation at 17 Y-chromosome STR and 15 autosomal STR loci. The resulting data reveal considerable diversity within these settlements, as well as some structure in the paternal genetic variation, with a limited number of haplotypes being shared between the communities. These findings have important implications for forensic studies of Turkish populations.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA studies on the population structure of the Christmas Island community

Journal: American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2005

Abstract:

Christmas Island is a remote Australian territory located close to the main Indonesian island of Java. Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers were used to investigate the genetic structure of the population, which comprises communities of mixed ethnic origin. Analysis of 12 Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphisms revealed a high level of gene diversity and haplotype frequencies that were consistent with source populations in southern China and Southeast Asia. mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) sequences displayed high levels of haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity that were comparable to various Asian populations. Genetic distances revealed extremely low mtDNA differentiation among Christmas Islanders and Asian populations. This was supported by the relatively high proportion of sequence types shared among these populations. The most common mtDNA haplogroups were M* and B, followed by D and F, which are prevalent in East/Southeast Asia. Christmas Islanders of European descent were characterized by the Eurasian haplogroup R*, and a limited degree of admixture was observed. In general, analysis of the genetic data indicated population affinities to southern Chinese (in particular from the Yunnan Province) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Malaysia, and Cambodia), which was consistent with historical records of settlement. The combined use of these different marker systems provides a useful and appropriate model for the study of contemporary populations derived from different ethnic origins. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2005. copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: mtDNA

Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations

Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution | Year: 2003

Abstract:

Analyses of mtDNA and Y-chromosome variation were performed in a sample of Iraqis, a scarcely investigated population of the “Fertile Crescent.” A total of 216 mtDNAs were screened for the diagnostic RFLP markers of the main Eurasian and African haplogroups. A subset of these samples, whose HVS-I sequences were previously obtained, was also examined by high-resolution restriction analysis. The Y-chromosome variation was investigated in 139 subjects by using 17 biallelic markers and the 49a,f/Taq I system. For both uniparental systems, the large majority of the haplogroups observed in the Iraqi population are those (H, J, T, and U for the mtDNA, and J(xM172) and J-M172 for the Y chromosome) considered to have originated in the Middle East and to have later spread all over Western Eurasia. However, about 9% of the mtDNAs and 30% of the Y-chromosomes most likely represent arrivals from distant geographic regions. The different proportion of long-range genetic input observed for the mtDNA and the Y chromosome appears to indicate that events of gene flow to this area might have involved mainly males rather than females.

Peoples: | Places: | Topics: Neolithic | DNA Type:

Y-Chromosome distribution within the geo-linguistic landscape of northwestern Russia

Journal: European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2009

Abstract:

Populations of northeastern Europe and the Uralic mountain range are found in close geographic proximity, but they have been subject to different demographic histories. The current study attempts to better understand the genetic paternal relationships of ethnic groups residing in these regions. We have performed high-resolution haplotyping of 236 Y-chromosomes from populations in northwestern Russia and the Uralic mountains, and compared them to relevant previously published data. Haplotype variation and age estimation analyses using 15 Y-STR loci were conducted for samples within the N1b, N1c1 and R1a1 single-nucleotide polymorphism backgrounds. Our results suggest that although most genetic relationships throughout Eurasia are dependent on geographic proximity, members of the Uralic and Slavic linguistic families and subfamilies, yield significant correlations at both levels of comparison making it difficult to denote either linguistics or geographic proximity as the basis for their genetic substrata. Expansion times for haplogroup R1a1 date approximately to 18?000 YBP, and age estimates along with Network topology of populations found at opposite poles of its range (Eastern Europe and South Asia) indicate that two separate haplotypic foci exist within this haplogroup. Data based on haplogroup N1b challenge earlier findings and suggest that the mutation may have occurred in the Uralic range rather than in Siberia and much earlier than has been proposed (12.9±4.1 instead of 5.2±2.7 kya). In addition, age and variance estimates for haplogroup N1c1 suggest that populations from the western Urals may have been genetically influenced by a dispersal from northeastern Europe (eg, eastern Slavs) rather than the converse.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians

Journal: Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

Abstract:

Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east–west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of China, and surveyed 29 Y-chromosomal biallelic markers and 8 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci to reconstruct the paternal architecture. Our results illustrated obvious genetic difference among these ethnic groups, and in general their genetic background is more similar with Central Asians than with East Asians. The ancestors of present northwestern populations were the admixture of early East Asians peopling northwestward and later Central Asians immigrating eastward. This population mixture was dated to occur within the past 10?000 years. The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians. The influence from West Eurasia through gene flows on the extant ethnic groups in Northwest China was relatively weak.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman

Journal: European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2007

Abstract:

Arabia has served as a strategic crossroads for human disseminations, providing a natural connection between the distant populations of China and India in the east to the western civilizations along the Mediterranean. To explore this region's critical role in the migratory episodes leaving Africa to Eurasia and back, high-resolution Y-chromosome analysis of males from the United Arab Emirates (164), Qatar (72) and Yemen (62) was performed. The role of the Levant in the Neolithic dispersal of the E3b1-M35 sublineages is supported by the data, and the distribution and STR-based analyses of J1-M267 representatives points to their spread from the north, most likely during the Neolithic. With the exception of Yemen, southern Arabia, South Iran and South Pakistan display high diversity in their Y-haplogroup substructure possibly a result of gene flow along the coastal crescent-shaped corridor of the Gulf of Oman facilitating human dispersals. Elevated rates of consanguinity may have had an impact in Yemen and Qatar, which experience significant heterozygote deficiencies at various hypervariable autosomal STR loci.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome diversity in Sweden – A long-time perspective

Journal: European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2006

Abstract:

Sixteen Y-chromosomal binary markers and nine Y-chromosome short tandem repeats were analyzed in a total of 383 unrelated males from seven different Swedish regions, one Finnish region and a Swedish Saami population in order to address questions about the origin and genetic structure of the present day population in Sweden. Haplogroup I1a* was found to be the most common haplogroup in Sweden and accounted, together with haplogroups R1b3, R1a1 and N3, for over 80% of the male lineages. Within Sweden, a minor stratification was found in which the northern region Vasterbotten differed significantly (P<0.05) from the other Swedish regions. A flow of N3 chromosomes into V"asterbotten mainly from Saami and Finnish populations could be one explanation for this stratification. However"

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Y-chromosome diversity is inversely associated with language affiliation in paired Austronesian- and Papuan-speaking communities from Solomon Islands

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2006

Abstract:

The Solomon Islands lie in the center of Island Melanesia, bordered to the north by the Bismarck Archipelago and to the south by Vanuatu. The nation's half-million inhabitants speak around 70 languages from two unrelated language groups: Austronesian, a language family widespread in the Pacific and closely related to languages spoken in Island Southeast Asia, and “East Papuan”, generally defined as non-Austronesian and distantly related to the extremely diverse Papuan languages of New Guinea. Despite the archipelago's presumed role as a staging post for the settlement of Remote Oceania, genetic research on Solomon Island populations is sparse. We collected paired samples from two regions that have populations speaking Austronesian and Papuan languages, respectively. Here we present Y-chromosome data from these samples, the first from Solomon Islands. We detected five Y-chromosome lineages: M-M106, O-M175, K-M9*, K-M230, and the extremely rare clade, K1-M177. Y-chromosome lineages from Solomon Islands fall within the range of other Island Melanesian populations but display markedly lower haplogroup diversity. From a broad Indo-Pacific perspective, Y-chromosome lineages show partial association with the distribution of language groups: O-M175 is associated spatially with Austronesian-speaking areas, whereas M-M106 broadly correlates with the distribution of Papuan languages. However, no relationship between Y-chromosome lineages and language affiliation was observed on a small scale within Solomon Islands. This pattern may result from a sampling strategy that targeted small communities, where individual Y-chromosome lineages can be fixed or swept to extinction by genetic drift or favored paternal exogamy.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

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