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Journal Article Archive 2016-10-14T01:03:42+00:00

Journal Article Archive

The Gagauz, a Linguistic Enclave, are not a Genetic Isolate

Journal: Annals of Human Genetics | Year: 2007

Abstract:

The Gagauz are a Turkic-speaking group that migrated from Turkey to their present location in the southern part of the Republic of Moldova about 150 years ago. Surrounded by Indo-European-speaking populations, they thus form a linguistic enclave, which raises the following question: to what extent have they remained in genetic isolation from their geographic neighbours? Analyses of mtDNA and Y chromosome variation indicate that despite their linguistic differences, the Gagauz have admixed extensively with neighbouring groups. Our data suggest that there has been more mtDNA than Y chromosome admixture, in keeping with the patrilocal nature of these groups. Moreover, when compared with another linguistic enclave, the Kalmyks there appears to be a correlation between the amount of genetic admixture and the amount of linguistic influence that these two linguistic enclaves have experienced from neighbouring groups.

Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type:

The genetic admixture in Tibetan-Yi Corridor

Journal: American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2017

Abstract:

Objectives

The Tibetan-Yi Corridor located on the eastern edge of Tibetan Plateau is suggested to be the key region for the origin and diversification of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations and the main route of the peopling of the Plateau. However, the genetic history of the populations in the Corridor is far from clear due to limited sampling in the northern part of the Corridor.

Materials and methods

We collected blood samples from 10 Tibetan and 10 Han Chinese individuals from Gansu province and genotyped about 600,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

Results

Our data revealed that the populations in the Corridor are all admixed on a genetic cline of deriving ancestry from Tibetans on the Plateau and surrounding lowland East Asians. The Tibetan and Han Chinese groups in the north of the Plateau show significant evidence of low-level West Eurasian admixture that could be probably traced back to 600∼900 years ago.

Discussion

We conclude that there have been huge population migrations from surrounding lowland onto the Tibetan Plateau via the Tibetan-Yi Corridor since the initial formation of Tibetans probably in Neolithic Time, which leads to the current genetic structure of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations.

Peoples: Han Chinese and Tibetans | Places: Gansu province | Topics: admixture | DNA Type: Autosomal DNA

The genetic diversity of three peculiar populations descending from the slave trade: Gm study of Noir Marron from French Guiana

Journal: Comptes Rendus Biologies | Year: 2009

Abstract:

The Noir Marron communities are the direct descendants of African slaves brought to the Guianas during the four centuries (16th to 19th) of the Atlantic slave trade. Among them, three major ethnic groups have been studied: the Aluku, the Ndjuka and the Saramaka. Their history led them to share close relationships with Europeans and Amerindians, as largely documented in their cultural records. The study of Gm polymorphisms of immunoglobulins may help to estimate the amount of gene flow linked to these cultural exchanges. Surprisingly, very low levels of European contribution (2.6%) and Amerindian contribution (1.7%) are detected in the Noir Marron gene pool. On the other hand, an African contribution of 95.7% redraws their origin to West Africa (FST0.15). This highly preserved African gene pool of the Noir Marron is unique in comparison to other African American populations of Latin America, who are notably more admixed. To cite this article: N. Brucato et al., C. R. Biologies 332 (2009).

Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type:

The genetic history of Europeans

Journal: Trends in Genetics | Year: 2012

Abstract:

The evolutionary history of modern humans is characterized by numerous migrations driven by environmental change, population pressures, and cultural innovations. In Europe, the events most widely considered to have had a major impact on patterns of genetic diversity are the initial colonization of the continent by anatomically modern humans (AMH), the last glacial maximum, and the Neolithic transition. For some decades it was assumed that the geographical structuring of genetic diversity within Europe was mainly the result of gene flow during and soon after the Neolithic transition, but recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, computer simulation modeling, and ancient DNA (aDNA) analyses are challenging this simplistic view. Here we review the current knowledge on the evolutionary history of humans in Europe based on archaeological and genetic data.

Peoples: | Places: Europe | Topics: | DNA Type:

The genetic history of Russian old settlers of polar northeastern Siberia

Journal: Russian Journal of Genetics | Year: 2010

Abstract:

The mtDNA variation has been studied in representatives of the Russkoe Ust'e (n = 30), Kolyma (n = 31), and Markovo (n = 26) ethnic subgroups originating from Russian military men, hunters, and fishers who married local Yukaghir women and settled at the Arctic Ocean coast and on the Anadyr' River more than 350 years ago. The mtDNA haplotypes characteristic of indigenous Siberian peoples have been demonstrated to form the basis of the mitochondrial gene pool of Russian old settlers of the region. Only one of 30 identified haplotypes belonging to 11 haplogroups (H2a) is characteristic of European populations. The C and D haplogroups are the most diverse. The analysis has revealed the characteristics of the population structure of the Russian old settlers and allowed them to be interpreted in terms of recent historical and environmental processes.

Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type:

The Genetic Impact of the Lake Chad Basin Population in North Africa as Documented by Mitochondrial Diversity and Internal Variation of the L3e5 Haplogroup

Journal: Annals of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Abstract:

Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type: mtDNA

The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective

Journal: Science | Year: 2000

Abstract:

A genetic perspective of human history in Europe was derived from 22 binary markers of the nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY). Ten lineages account for >95% of the 1007 European Y chromosomes studied. Geographic distribution and age estimates of alleles are compatible with two Paleolithic and one Neolithic migratory episode that have contributed to the modern European gene pool. A significant correlation between the NRY haplotype data and principal components based on 95 protein markers was observed, indicating the effectiveness of NRY binary polymorphisms in the characterization of human population composition and history.

Peoples: - | Places: Europe | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula

Journal: American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2008

Abstract:

Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape. The Iberian Peninsula provides a suitable region for examination of the demographic impact of such recent events, because its complex recent history has involved the long-term residence of two very different populations with distinct geographical origins and their own particular cultural and religious characteristics North African Muslims and Sephardic Jews. To address this issue, we analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) and Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) sources. Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants. In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient. The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement more marked in some regions than in others plus the effects of genetic drift.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

The genetic legacy of the expansion of Turkic-speaking nomads across Eurasia

Journal: PLoS Genetics | Year: 2015

Abstract:

The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages. These groups have dispersed across a vast area, including Siberia, Northwest China, Central Asia, East Europe, the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Middle East, and Afghanistan. The origin and early dispersal history of the Turkic peoples is disputed, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia. Previous genetic studies have not identified a clear-cut unifying genetic signal for the Turkic peoples, which lends support for language replacement rather than demic diffusion as the model for the Turkic language’s expansion. We addressed the genetic origin of 373 individuals from 22 Turkic-speaking populations, representing their current geographic range, by analyzing genome-wide high-density genotype data. In agreement with the elite dominance model of language expansion most of the Turkic peoples studied genetically resemble their geographic neighbors. However, western Turkic peoples sampled across West Eurasia shared an excess of long chromosomal tracts that are identical by descent (IBD) with populations from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia (SSM), an area where historians center a series of early Turkic and non-Turkic steppe polities. While SSM matching IBD tracts (> 1cM) are also observed in non-Turkic populations, Turkic peoples demonstrate a higher percentage of such tracts (p-values ≤ 0.01) compared to their non-Turkic neighbors. Finally, we used the ALDER method and inferred admixture dates (~9th–17th centuries) that overlap with the Turkic migrations of the 5th–16th centuries. Thus, our results indicate historical admixture among Turkic peoples, and the recent shared ancestry with modern populations in SSM supports one of the hypothesized homelands for their nomadic Turkic and related Mongolic ancestors.

Peoples: Turkic peoples | Places: Afghanistan, Anatolia, Central Asia, East Europe, Northwest China, Siberia, The Caucasus, and the Middle East | Topics: Demic diffusion model and Language replacement | DNA Type: Autosomal DNA

The Genetic Legacy of the Pre-Colonial Period in Contemporary Bolivians

Journal: PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Abstract:

Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type: mtDNA

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